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Reproductive Physiology

Stan Hileman

headshot of Stanley Hileman


Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
West Virginia University
P.O. Box 9229
Morgantown, WV 26506-9229


Post Doctoral, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center /
Harvard Medical School 2000
University of Illinois 1998
PhD, University of Kentucky 1991
MS, University of Kentucky 1988
BS, West Virginia University 1985


Nutrition significantly impacts reproduction in mammalian species. However, little is known about the neural pathways through which inadequate nutrition reduces fertility. Our work focuses on identifying hypothalamic pathways through which signals such as leptin or estradiol may influence secretion of gonadotropin releasing-hormone during undernutrition. Improper nutrition influences important reproductive processes such as puberty and postpartum return to estrous. Our hope is that a better understanding of the neural pathways involved in regulating reproduction during undernutrition will enhance reproductive efficiency in domestic animals and fertility in humans.


WVU School of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology 2000-present



Goodman RL, Hileman SM, Nestor CC, Porter KL, Connors JM, Hardy SL, Millar RP, Cernea M, Coolen LM, Lehman MN. Kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin act in the arcuate nucleus to control activity of the GnRH pulse generator in ewes. Endocrinology(2013 Nov) 154(11): 4259-69.

Nestor CC, Coolen LM, Nesselrod GL, Valent M, Connors JM, Hileman SM, Cheng G, Lehman MN, Goodman RL. Evidence that orphan in FQ mediates progesterone negative feedback in the ewe. Endocrinology (2013 Nov) 154(11): 4249-58.

Lehman MN, Hileman SM, Goodman RL. Neuroanatomy of the kisspeptin signaling system in mammals: comparative and developmental aspects. Adv Exp Med Biol (2013) 784:27-62. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6199-9_3.


Goodman RL, Maltby MJ, Millar RP, Hileman SM, Nestor CC, Whited B, Tseng AS, Coolen LM, Lehman MN. Evidence that dopamine acts via kisspeptin to hold GnRH pulse frequency in check in anestrous ewes. Endocrinology (2012 Dec) 153(12): 5918-27. doi: 10.1210/en.2012-1611.

Merkley CM, Porter KL, Coolen LM, Hileman SM, Billings HJ, Drews S, Goodman RL, Lehman MN. KNDy (kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin) neurons are activated during both pulsatile and surge secretion of LH in the ewe. Endocrinology (2012 Nov) 153(11): 5406-14. doi: 10.1210/en.2012-1357.

Nestor CC, Briscoe AM, Davis SM, Valent M, Goodman RL, Hileman SM. Evidence of a role for kisspeptin and neurokinin B in puberty of female sheep. Endocrinology, (2012 Jun) 153(6):2756-65.

Reicher S, Ramos-Nieves JM, Hileman SM, Boisclair YR, Gootwine E, Gertler A. Nonsynonymous natural genetic polymorphisms in the bovine leptin gene affect biochemical and biological characteristics of the mature hormone. J Anim Sci, (2012 Feb) 90(2):410-8.


Hileman SM, McManus CJ, Goodman RL, Jansen HT. Neurons of the lateral preoptic area/rostral anterior hypothalamic area are required for photoperiodic inhibition of estrous cyclicity in sheep. Biol Reprod, (2011 Nov) 85(5):1057-65.

Goodman RL, Holaskova I, Nestor CC, Connors JM, Billings HJ, Valent M, Lehman MN, Hileman SM. Evidence that the arcuate nucleus is an important site of progesterone negative feedback in the ewe. Endocrinology, (2011 Sep) 152(9):3451-60.

Morley JE, Farr SA, Sell RL, Hileman SM, Banks WA. Nitric oxide is a central component in neuropeptide regulation of appetite. Peptides, (2011 Apr) 32(4):776-80.


Billings HJ, Connors JM, Altman SN, Hileman SM, Holaskova I, Lehman MN, McManus CJ, Nestor CC, Jacobs BH, Goodman RL. Neurokinin B acts via the neurokinin-3 receptor in the retrochiasmatic area to stimulate luteinizing hormone secretion in sheep. Endocrinology (2010), 151(8):3836-46.


Singh SR, Hileman SM, Connors JM, McManus CJ, Coolen LM, Lehman MN, Goodman RL. Estradiol negative feedback regulation by glutamatergic afferents to A15dopaminergic neurons: variation with season. Endocrinology (2009), 150(10):4663-71.


Bogusz AL, Hardy SL, Lehman MN, Connors JM, Hileman SM, Sliwowska JH, Billings HJ, McManus CJ, Valent M, Singh SR, Nestor CC, Coolen LM, Goodman RL. Evidence that gamma-aminobutyric acid is part of the neural circuit mediating estradiol negative feedback in anestrous ewes. Endocrinology (2008), 149(6):2762-72.


Ferguson C, Hardy SL, Werner DF, Hileman SM, Delorey TM, Homanics GE. New insight into the role of the beta3 subunit of the GABAA-R in development, behavior, body weight regulation, and anesthesia revealed by conditional gene knockout. BMC Neurosci(2007), 8:85.